The Different Types of Stones
The familiar stone types that are used today are identified through four categories: SEDIMENTARY, METAMORPHIC, IGNEOUS STONE, and ARTIFICIAL.
Sedimentary stone came from organic elements such as glaciers, rivers, wind, oceans, and plants. Tiny sedimentary pieces broke off from these elements and accumulated to form rock beds. Through millions of years of heat and pressure these pieces were bonded.
Examples of sedimentary stones include limestones, sandstones, travertine.
Metamorphic stone originates from a natural change from one type of stone to another type through the mixture of heat, pressure, and minerals. The change may be a development of a crystalline formation, a texture change, or a colour change.
Metamorphic stones include marble, slate and serpentine.
Igneous stones are mainly formed through volcanic material such as magma. Underneath the earth surface, liquid magma cooled and solidified. Mineral gases and liquids penetrated into the stone and created new crystalline formations with various colours.
Granite and basalt are prime examples of igneous stone.
Artificial stone is produced by mixing marble powder, resin and pigment, and then cast using the vacuum oscillation to form the block. Cutting, calibration, grinding and polishing are then done to output the slabs. Some factories have developed a special low-viscosity, high strength polyester resin, with which the mould-pressing artificial marble has high hardness, strength, good gloss, low water absorption, wear resistance.
Terrazzo, conglomerated or cultured stones are some of artificial stones.