What is Porcelain
What we now called porcelain tiles is classified as: highly vitrified stoneware tile.
(vitrify = to change or make into glass or a glassy substance, especially through heat fusion)
Porcelain tiles are considered an upgrade of white clay single fired tiles, which were themselves an upgrade of red clay singe fired tiles.
Three major differences between porcelain and white/red single fired tiles:
|Water absorption||less than 0.5%||vary from <0.5% to >10%|
|Firing temperature||minimum 1240˚C||around 1100˚C|
|Breaking strength||± 27N/mm2||±22N/mm2|
Percentages of raw materials used to produce porcelain tiles have been changing in recent years to accommodate faster production times, modern technologies, market competition and manufacturers’ product mix. Here is the common composition:
|MATERIAL||PERCENTAGE in weight||Analogy||Role|
|Quartz||±10-20%||Skeleton||Considered as the structure of the tile|
|Feldspar||±25%-35%||Blood||Capable of closing the pores during vitrification|
|Plastic clays||±10-20%||Muscles||Gives plasticity and workability because of their water molecules|
|Kaolin||±30%-40%||Muscles||Also provides plasticity|
|Carbonates||Calcium & magnesium|
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